Resorption through the intestinal mucosa


Particles with a size of 0.1 until 5 microns (100 nm to 5 microns) are taken up by the cells of the intestinal villi (see figure on the left). At a particle size between 100 and 400 nm, about 85 % of the particles can be resorbed through the intestinal mucosa. This is reduced to approximately 30 % at a particle size of 5 microns. M cells of the Peyer's patches in the small intestine, specialised on the take-up of antigens, can resorb larger particles up to a size of about 10 microns. However, they represent only about 1 % of the absorptive surface of the small intestine.

Particles that are larger than 10 microns are no longer resorbed by the intestine. (For comparison, very fine sand grains have a size of about 60 microns.)

The proportion of APUXAN, which is not resorbed through the oral mucosa, passes into the gastrointestinal tract through swallowing. APUXAN is acid-resistant and indigestible and passes therefore safely through the stomach. In the small intestine, the particles can be easily resorbed through the intestinal epithelium and the M cells because of their small size of less than 400 nm. If taken up by M cells the particles directly reach into the Peyer's patches. These lymphoid organs of the digestive tract contain many immune cells that can be activated efficiently through the APUXAN particles.

resorption through the oral mucosa

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