As in the menu item resorption above, particles with a maximum size of 400 nm and specific surface properties can be resorbed via the oral mucosa. In the small intestine the epithelial cells can only absorb particles with a size of max. 5 microns whereas the M cells of Peyer's patches take-up particles to a size of about 10 microns.
A benchmark test between products with yeast-derived beta-glucan (capsule), almond mushroom products (powder) and APUXAN shows that only APUXAN is in a size range that is ideal for absorption via the oral mucosa and the small intestine. Both the capsule and the powder product have up to 90 % of particles that are so large that they cannot be absorbed in the small intestine. Only a very small amount can be taken up via the M cells of the Peyer's patches. However, these are present in the small intestine for only up to about 1 %.
APUXAN by contrast, has a particle size smaller than 0.4 microns and can thus be optimally absorbed both by the cells of the oral mucosa as well as by the villi.
For the comparative study, the powder of the comparative products was dissolved for 9 hrs at 37°C in water at a pH of 7, which corresponds to the physiological environment in the small intestine. In this milieu, the capsules dissolve and the powder is exposed to the fluid of the small intestine. The particle size of the dissolved powder was determined by laser diffraction.